The three policies have been implemented! Are chemical fertilizers and pesticides really going to disappear
abstract: The three policies have been implemented! Are chemical fertilizers and pesticides really going to disappear Recently, the general secretary of the CPC Central Committee and the president of the state presided over the first meeting of the central fin
The three policies have been implemented! Are chemical fertilizers and pesticides really going to disappear
Recently, the general secretary of the CPC Central Committee and the president of the state presided over the first meeting of the central financial and Economic Committee to study the ideas and measures for fighting the three major battles. Advocate 2030 sustainable development production agenda!
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council have made important instructions on doing a good job in the field of agriculture, rural areas and farmers, promoting the high-quality development of agriculture and ensuring the green development of agriculture.
The general secretary pointed out that we should comprehensively promote green development. We should adjust the structure of agricultural input, reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and increase the use of organic fertilizers.
Green development is an inevitable requirement for the construction of a high-quality modern economic system. It is necessary to comprehensively implement the soil pollution prevention and control action plan, highlight key areas, industries and pollutants, strengthen soil pollution control and repair, effectively prevent risks, and let the people eat and live at ease.
We should continue to carry out the rural human settlement environment improvement action, create a beautiful countryside, and retain the idyllic scenery of birds and flowers for the common people.
The general secretary pointed out that it is necessary to effectively prevent ecological environment risks.
It is necessary to build an iron army for ecological and environmental protection, with strong politics, high ability, hard work style, and courage to bear responsibilities, especially able to bear hardships, fight and dedicate. Party committees and governments at all levels should care about and support the construction of the ecological and environmental protection team, and take the initiative to support and encourage cadres who dare and can do things.
In China, the utilization rate of chemical fertilizer is not high. The nitrogen use efficiency is only 35% in the current season, but it is only 10% lower in the greenhouse. According to the data of the food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the amount of chemical fertilizer used in China increased by 61% from 1980 to 2002, while the grain output increased by only 31%. The low utilization rate of fertilizer has always been a problem in agricultural fertilization in China. It is found that the utilization rate of phosphate fertilizer in China is only about 10% - 25%.
Zhu Zhaoliang, academician of Soil Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, pointed out that the amount of chemical fertilizer used in China is 55 times that of 40 years ago. According to our estimate, we need to consume 1 jin of chemical fertilizer for every 9 Jin of grain. If the ration of grain per person is calculated according to 30 jin / month, then each person will consume 40 Jin of chemical fertilizer every year because of grain production. As a result, we have to "eat" fertilizer, especially our offspring may not be able to avoid.
State leaders have said such a sentence to protect the ecological environment: we should adjust the structure of agricultural input, reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and increase the use of organic fertilizers. We can't eat from our ancestors, cut off the way for future generations, and develop in a destructive way. Lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets.
Many aspects affect soil health
Chen nengchang, a researcher at Guangdong Provincial Institute of ecological and environmental technology, wrote an article three years ago to remind: in developed countries with over nutrition and developing countries with full food, there is actually a more widespread hunger, which is due to the lack of trace elements and vitamins in food, which leads to the lack of these ingredients in human body. This kind of hunger is called "hidden hunger" because it is invisible.
In an interview with China Science Daily, Chen nengchang said that in recent decades, the amount of chemical fertilizer, especially nitrogen fertilizer, in China has been increasing, which has nearly doubled the internationally recognized safe limit for chemical fertilizer application. In addition, the acid rain with coal as the main energy belt will result in rapid soil acidification.
Soil acidification not only makes the foreign heavy metals not easy to be aged, but also improves the availability of heavy metals in the soil of high heavy metal background areas, which leads to the excessive content of heavy metals in grain.
"Trace elements and microorganisms are an important part of human metabolic mechanism. Recent studies have found that some essential trace elements are the essential media for human intestinal flora metabolism." Deputy reporter Meng Xiangbing told China's Ecological Industry Research Institute.
Soil improvement is the key
From Chen Neng Chang's point of view, the public began to realize the importance of food quality to human health, the importance of food diversity and the health of soil as a source of food.
"We hope that the academia and the government will pay more attention to this." Chen nengchang said that the dietary guidelines issued by the United States in 2005 guide people to strive to get adequate nutrition in the process of eating.
The way for people to help themselves is to achieve food diversity as much as possible to achieve a balanced nutrition, which also helps to reduce the risk of pollution. In addition, people should eat whole grain food as much as possible, and do not eat deep processed food. "Of course, from the source, we should pay more attention to soil pollution and soil health."
Don't say that land pollution has nothing to do with you!
Increase soil heavy metals and toxic elements
The main heavy metals causing pollution are Zn, Cu, CO and Cr.
The results showed that the long-term application of chemical fertilizer would lead to the enrichment of heavy metal elements in the soil, whether it was acidic soil, slightly acidic soil or calcareous soil. If long-term application of ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate and compound fertilizer, the content of as in soil can reach 50 ~ 60 mg / kg.
Aggravating soil acidification
Long term application of chemical fertilizer accelerates soil acidification.
On the one hand, it is related to the nitrification of nitrogen fertilizer in soil to produce nitrate. First, ammonium is converted into nitrite, and then nitrite is converted into nitrate to form H +, which leads to soil acidification.
On the other hand, some physiological acid fertilizers, such as calcium phosphate, ammonium sulfate and ammonium chloride, increase the content of H + in soil after plants absorb nutrient ions in fertilizers. The acidification of many cultivated soils is related to the long-term application of physiological fertilizers. At the same time, long-term application of KCl can make the neutral soil with small buffer become acid gradually due to the influence of physiological acidity caused by crop selective absorption.
Lead to soil nutrient imbalance
From the aspects of soil nutrient balance and sustainable utilization, it can be clearly seen that the high concentration of chemical fertilizer not only brings about the improvement of economic benefits, but also brings about new problems, that is, the use of a large number of high concentration fertilizers increases the crop yield, but also increases the depletion of trace elements in the soil.
Destruction of soil structure
A large amount of nitrogen fertilizer has been used for a long time, especially ammonium fertilizer. After ammonium ion enters the soil, hydrogen ion is released in the process of nitrification, which makes the soil acidified gradually. Ammonium ion can replace the calcium ion on the soil colloidal particles, causing the soil particles to disperse, thus destroying the soil aggregate structure, causing the soil to harden seriously, and finally losing the value of agricultural cultivation.
In view of the above phenomenon, some scholars believe that chemical fertilizer can improve the fertility of cultivated land in the short term, but the long-term unreasonable use will have adverse effects on land health.
Farmers feel that "increasing the amount of chemical fertilizer does not increase the yield", even "the more fertilizer is used, the lower the yield", agricultural products heavy metals seriously exceed the standard, quality deterioration, difficult to sell, low efficiency and other "chaos" has become a common phenomenon. The soil crisis, agricultural crisis has sounded the alarm bell for our country's food security, food security and even the sustainable development of national economy!
In 2020, following the implementation of the central rural work conference, the Central Document No. 1 and the State Council's government work report, the state will continue to increase investment in agriculture, strengthen project integration, and accelerate the green development of agriculture.
1、 In 2020, the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas and the Ministry of finance will focus on supporting the action of replacing chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer.
In order to reduce the input of chemical fertilizer and increase the input of organic fertilizer, we will support key counties to implement the substitution of organic fertilizer with fruit, vegetable and tea, and the implementation of regional focus will be inclined to the Yangtze River economic belt and the Yellow River Basin, and the pilot crops will be expanded to other horticultural crops and field crops with great potential for fertilizer saving.
Integrated promotion of compost returning to the field, commercial organic fertilizer application, biogas residue and biogas slurry returning technology mode, supporting facilities and equipment, promoting fruit and vegetable tea quality and efficiency and resource recycling.
The promotion of the work should be combined with the resource utilization of livestock and poultry manure. The government should purchase services, technology subsidies, and physical and chemical subsidies to support farmers and new agricultural operators to accumulate and apply organic fertilizer, cultivate a number of productive service organizations, accelerate the application of organic fertilizer, and promote the combination of planting and breeding.
2、 In 2020, the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas and the Ministry of finance will give priority to the treatment of livestock manure.
We will support animal husbandry counties to carry out resource utilization of livestock and poultry manure, and explore the promotion of resource utilization of livestock and poultry manure in non livestock breeding counties. In accordance with the principle of government support, enterprise main body and market-oriented operation, the main utilization mode is local energy and agricultural organic fertilizer. New (expanded) treatment facilities for livestock and poultry manure collection and utilization, as well as regional centralized treatment center and large-scale biogas project are built to realize the full realization of manure treatment and resource utilization in large-scale farms, and form the combination of agriculture and animal husbandry The industrial pattern of circular development of planting and breeding.
3、 In 2020, the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas and the Ministry of finance will focus on the protection and improvement of cultivated land quality.
Select a number of key counties with great potential of fertilizer saving to carry out demonstration of fertilizer reduction and efficiency increase, guide enterprises and social service organizations to carry out scientific fertilization technology services, support farmers and new agricultural business entities to apply new technologies and products of fertilizer reduction and efficiency increase, and strive to solve the outstanding problems of limiting excessive use of chemical fertilizers and low utilization rate.
Requirements: all localities should continue to promote the green development of agriculture and rural areas in accordance with the arrangements of the central rural work conference and the national agricultural and rural bureau directors' meeting.